Monitoring the Shear Fatigue Response of Reinforced Concrete Beams Subjected to Moving Loads using Digital Image Correlation

Benny Suryanto, George Staniforth


A series of three reinforced concrete beams without shear reinforcement were tested to failure under a centre-span monotonic load, a centre-span pulsating load, and a stepwise-moving pulsating load. During each experiment, load-deflection response was continuously monitored and at several stages during the experiment, the load was briefly stopped for crack observations. In addition to this manual crack mapping, more detailed crack mappings were undertaken using the digital image correlation (DIC) technique, employing the open-source DIC software Ncorr. It was shown that while the three beams exhibited a similar mode of failure (i.e. shear), each beam displayed a rather distinctive overall behaviour, particularly with regard to the load-deflection response and the nature of crack initiation and propagation. Results from the DIC analysis are presented to provide direct evidence on the damage progression during the load cycles and discuss the reduced fatigue life exhibited by the beam subjected to stepwise-moving pulsating load


moving load, pulsating, shear, fatigue, DIC, Ncorr


  1. Chang, T. S., Kesler, C. E., Fatigue Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams, Journal Proceedings of the American Concrete Institute, 55(8), 1958, pp. 245–254.

  2. Taylor, R., Discussion of a Paper by Chang, T. S. and Kesler, C. E., Journal Proceedings of the American Concrete Institute, 55(14), 1959, pp. 1011–1015.

  3. Farghaly, S. A.,Shear Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams for Static and Repeated loads, PhD thesis, University of Tokyo, 1979.

  4. Okamura, H, Farghaly, S. A., Ueda, T., Behaviors of Reinforced Concrete Beams with Stirrups Failing in Shear under Fatigue Loading, Proceedings of the Japan Society of Civil Engineers, 308, 1981, pp. 109–122.

  5. Matsui, S., Study on Fatigue and Design for Highway Concrete Decks, PhD thesis, Osaka University, 1984.

  6. Matsui, S., Fatigue Strength of RC slabs of Highway Bridge by Wheel Running Machine and Influence of Water on Fatigue, Proceedings of Japan Concrete Institute, 9(2), 1987, pp. 627–632.

  7. Perdikaris, P.C., Beim, S., RC Bridge Decks under Pulsating and Moving Load, ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, 114(3), 1988, pp. 591–607.

  8. Maekawa, K., Toongoenthong, K., Gebreyouhannes, E., Kishi, T., Direct Path-integral scheme for Fatigue Simulation of Reinforced Concrete in Shear, Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, 4(1), 2006, pp. 159–177.

  9. Maekawa, K., Gebreyouhannes, E., Mishima, T., An, X., Three-dimensional Fatigue Simulation of RC Slabs under Traveling Wheel-type Loads, Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, 4(3), 2006, pp. 445–457.

  10. Maekawa, K., Ishida, T., Chijiwa, N., Fujiyama, C., Multiscale Coupled-Hygromechanistic Approach to the Life-Cycle Performance Assessment of Structural Concrete, ASCE Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 27(2), 2013, pp. A4014003.

  11. Gebreyouhannes, E., Kishi, T., Maekawa, K., Shear Fatigue Response of Cracked Concrete Interface, Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, 6(2), 2008, pp. 365–376.

  12. Gebreyouhannes, E., Chijiwa, N., Fujiyama, C., Maekawa, K., Shear Fatigue Simulation of RC Beams subjected to Fixed Pulsating and Moving Loads, Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, 6(1), 2008, pp. 215–226.

  13. Fujiyama, C., Maekawa, K., A Computational Simulation for the Damage Mechanism of Steel-concrete Composite Slabs under High Cycle Fatigue Loads, Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, 9(2), 2011, pp. 193-204.

  14. BS EN 197-1:2011, Cement: Composition, Specifications and Conformity Criteria for Common Cements, British Standards Institution, 2011.

  15. BS EN 15167-1:2006, Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag for use in Concrete, Mortar and Grout. Definitions, Specifications and Conformity Criteria, British Standards Institution, 2006.

  16. BS EN 12620:2013, Aggregates for Concrete, British Standards Institution, 2013.

  17. Hasnayn, M. M., McCarter, W. J., Woodward, P. K., Connolly, D. P., Starrs, G. Railway Subgrade Performance during Flooding and the Post-flooding (Recovery) Period, Transportation Geotechnics, 11, 2017, pp. 57–68.

  18. Suryanto, B., Tambusay, A., Suprobo, P., Crack Mapping on Shear-critical Reinforced Concrete Beams using an Open Source Digital Image Correlation Software, Civil Engineering Dimension, 19(2), 2017, pp. 93–98.

  19. Tambusay, A., Suryanto, B., Suprobo, P., Visualization of Shear Cracks in a Reinforced Concrete Beam using the Digital Image Correlation, International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, 8(2), 2018, pp. 573–578.

  20. Blaber, J., Adair, B., and Antoniou, A., Ncorr: Open-Source 2D Digital Image Correlation Matlab Software, Experimental Mechanics, 55(6),2015, pp. 1105–1122.

  21. SNI 2847:2013, Persyaratan Beton Struktural untuk Bangunan Gedung, Badan Standardisasi Nasional, Department of Public Work of Indonesia, 2013.

  22. Suryanto, B., Morgan, R., and Han, A.L., Predicting the Response of Shear-critical Reinforced Concrete Beams using Response-2000 and SNI2847:2013, Civil Engineering Dimension, 18(1),2016, pp. 16–24

  23. Suryanto, B., Staniforth, G., Kim, J., Gebreyouhannes, E., Chijiwa, C., Fujiyama, C., Woodward, P. K., Investigating the Mechanism of Shear Fatigue in Reinforced Concrete Beams subjected to Pulsating and Moving Loads using Digital Image Correlation, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Sustainable Civil Engineering Structures and Construction Materials: Sustainable Structures for Future Generation, 5-7 September 2018, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, in press.

  24. Suryanto, B., Nagai, K., Maekawa, K., Bidirectional Multiple Cracking Tests on High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composite Plates, ACI Materials Journal, 107(5), 2010, pp. 450–460.

  25. Suryanto, B., Nagai, K., Maekawa, K., Smeared-crack Modeling of R/ECC Membranes Incorporating an Explicit Shear Transfer Model, Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, 8(3), 2010, pp. 315–326.


CED is published by The Institute of Research & Community Outreach - Petra Christian University, Surabaya, Indonesia

©All right reserved 2016.Civil Engineering Dimension, ISSN: 1410-9530, e-ISSN: 1979-570X

View My Stats