DOI: https://doi.org/10.9744/ced.21.2.59-65

PEMS-on board and E3 Modeling: A Comparison between Real-World Measurement and Emissions Estimates from Construction Equipment

Apif M. Hajji M. Hajji, Aisyah Larasati, Michael P. Lewis, Huang Yue

Abstract


Vehicles in construction industry are typically powered by diesel engines and are considered to be an off-road source of air pollution. Air pollutant emissions include nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), hydrocarbons (HC), and carbon monoxide (CO). Any engine that combusts a nonrenewable carbonaceous fuel will have net emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). Economic-Energy-Environmental (E3) model, a statistical-modeled tool, is developed by combining a multiple linear regression (MLR) approach for modeling equipment productivity with the emissions calculation algorithm from Environment Protection Agency (EPA)’s NONROAD model. This paper compares emissions data between the field data to E3 model outputs, and  determines the similarity of the two sources of fuel use data. It is expected the two data are not narrowly similar since the field data are for individual vehicles, while E3 results are based on NONROAD model, which was intended to estimate average fuel use for a fleet of Heavy-Duty Diesel (HDD) equipment.


Full Text:

PDF

References


  1. Sandanayake, M., Zhang, G., Setunge, S., and Thomas, C.M., Environmental Emissions of Construction Equipment usage in Pile Foundation Construction Process-A Case Study, Pro-ceedings of the 19th International Symposium on Advancement of Construction Management and Real Estate, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015, pp. 327-339.

  2. Waris, M., Liew, M. ., Khamidi, M.F., and Idrus, A., Criteria for the Selection of Sustainable Onsite Construction Equipment, International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, 3(1), 2014, pp. 96-110.

  3. Fu, M., Ge, Y., Tan, J., Zeng, T., and Liang, B., Characteristics of Typical Non-Road Machinery Emissions in China by using Portable Emission Measurement System, Science of the Total Environment, 437, 2012, pp. 255-261.

  4. Abanda, F.H., Tah, J.H.M., and Cheung, F.K.T., Mathematical Modelling of Embodied Energy, Greenhouse Gases, Waste, Time-Cost Parameters of Building Projects: A Review, Building and Environment, 59, 2013, pp. 23-37.

  5. Lewis, P., Rasdorf, W., Frey, H., and Leming, M., Effects of Engine Idling on National Ambient Air Quality Standards Criteria Pollutant Emissions from Nonroad Diesel Construction Equipment. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, (2270), 2012, pp. 67-75.

  6. Kim, B.S. and Jang, W.S., A Study on Comparing the CO2 Emission Estimating Result for Construction Equipment, Journal of the Korean Society of Civil Engineers, 33(4), 2013, pp. 1675-1682.

  7. Wang, T., Lee, I.S., Kendall, A., Harvey, J., Lee, E.B., and Kim, C., Life Cycle Energy Consumption and GHG Emission from Pavement Rehabilitation with Different Rolling Resistance, Journal of Cleaner Production, 33, 2012, pp. 86-96.

  8. Hong, J., Shen, G.Q., Peng, Y., Feng, Y., and Mao, C., Uncertainty Analysis for Measuring Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Building Construction Phase: A Case Study in China, Journal of Cleaner Production, 129, 2016, pp. 183-195.

  9. Heidari, B. and Marr, L.C., Real-time Emissions from Construction Equipment Compared with Model Predictions, Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 65(2), 2015, pp. 115-125.

  10. Kousoulidou, M., Fontaras, G., Ntziachristos, L., Bonnel, P., Samaras, Z., and Dilara, P., Use of Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS) for the Development and Validation of Passenger Car Emission Factors, Atmospheric Environment, 64, 2013, pp. 329-338.

  11. Lindgren, M., Arrhenius, K., Larsson, G., Bäfver, L., Arvidsson, H., Wetterberg, C., and Rosell, L., Analysis of Unregulated Emissions from an Off-Road Diesel Engine During Realistic Work Operations, Atmospheric Environment, 45(30), 2011, pp. 5394-5398.

  12. Sandhu, G. and Frey, H., Effects of Errors on Vehicle Emission Rates from Portable Emissions Measurement Systems, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, (2340), 2013, pp. 10-19.

  13. Hajji, A.M. and Lewis, P., Development of Productivity-Based Estimating Tool for Energy and Air Emissions from Earthwork Construction Activities, Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, 2(1), 2013, pp. 84-100.

  14. Hajji, A.M., Estimating the Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides (Nox) and Particulate Matter (PM) From Diesel Construction Equipment by using the Productivity Model, World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, 10(3), 2013, pp. 212-228.

  15. Hajji, A.M., The Use of Construction Equipment Productivity Rate Model for Estimating Fuel Use and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions, Case Study: Bulldozer, Excavator and Dump Truck, International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 8(2), 2015, pp. 111-121.

  16. Frey, H.C., Rasdorf, W., Kim, K., Pang, S.H., Lewis, P., and Abolhassani, S., Real-World Duty Cycles and Utilization for Construction Equipment in North Carolina, Raleigh, NC: Dept. of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, 2008.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.9744/ced.21.2.59-65



CED is published by The Institute of Research & Community Outreach - Petra Christian University, Surabaya, Indonesia

©All right reserved 2016.Civil Engineering Dimension, ISSN: 1410-9530, e-ISSN: 1979-570X

View My Stats