DOI: https://doi.org/10.9744/ced.15.1.43-50

Effect of Coarse Aggregate Sizes and Replacement Levels on the Strength of Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) Concrete

Olusola, K.O., Babafemi, A.J.

Abstract


The maximum coarse aggregate size used in concrete can impact on its strength. An investigation of the effect of coarse aggregate size and replacement level of granite with palm kernel shell (PKS) on the compressive and tensile strengths of PKS concrete were investigated. Mix proportion by weight of 1:1½:2 with w/c of 0.50 were used. All samples were tested at 7 and up to 90 days. Results showed that both compressive and splitting tensile strengths increased with increase in aggregate sizes. Both strengths however decreased with increase in replacement levels of granite with PKS. Optimum replacement level of granite with PKS was 25% with compressive and tensile strengths of 22.97 N/mm2 and 1.89 N/mm2 respectively at maximum coarse aggregate size of 20 mm. However, at 50% PKS content, which results in lightweight concrete, compressive strength was 18.13 N/mm2 which is above the minimum value of 17 MPa for lightweight concrete.

Keywords


Compressive strength, maximum aggregate size, palm kernel shell (PKS), PKS concrete, replacement level, splitting tensile strength

Full Text:

PDF

References


  1. Ndoke, P.N., Performance of Palm Kernel Shells as a Partial Replacement for Coarse Aggregate in Asphalt Concrete, Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies, 5(9), 2006, pp. 145-152.
  2. Olawuyi, B.J., Olusola, K.O., and Babafemi, A.J., Influence of Curing Age and Mix Composition on Compressive Strength of Volcanic Ash Blended Cement Laterized Concrete, Civil Engineering Dimension, 14(2), 2012, pp. 84-91.
  3. Okafor, F.O., Palm Kernel Shell as a Lightweight Aggregate for Concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, 18(6), 1988, pp. 901-910.[CrossRef]
  4. Nuhu-Koko, M.K., The Use of Palm Kernel Shell as Aggregates for Concrete, The 21st Annual Conference of Materials Testing, Control and Research, Federal Ministry of Works, Lagos, Nigeria, 1990, pp. 20-23.
  5. Olateju, O.T., The Efficacy of Light Weight Aggregate from Palm Kernel Shells, Journal of Housing Science, 15(4), 1992, pp. 263-276.
  6. Falade, F., The Use of Palm Kernel Shell as Coarse Aggregate in Concrete, Journal of Housing Science, 16(3), 1992, pp. 213-219.
  7. Omange, G.N., Palm Kernel Shells as Road Building Materials, Nigerian Society of Engineers Technical Transactions, 36(1), 2001.
  8. Ayangade, J.A., Olusola, K.O., Ikpo, I.J., and Ata, O., Effect of Granite Dust on the Performance Characteristics of Kernelrazzo Floor Finish, Building and Environment, 39(10), 2004, pp. 1207-1212.[CrossRef]
  9. Mannan, M.A. and Ganapathy, C., Concrete from an Agricultural Waste-oil Palm Shell (OPS). Building and Environment, 39(4), 2004, pp. 441-448.[CrossRef]
  10. Teo, D.C.L., Mannan, M.A., and Kurian, V.J., Behaviour of Reinforced Lightweight Concrete Beams Made with Oil Palm Shell, Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, 4(3), 2006, pp. 1 -10.[CrossRef]
  11. Teo, D.C.L., Mannan M.A., and Kurian, V.J., Structural Concrete using Oil Palm Shell (OPS) as Lightweight Aggregate, Turkish Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences, 30, 2006, pp. 251-257.
  12. Teo, D.C.L., Mannan, M.A., and Kurian, V.J., Structural Behaviour of Singly Reinforced OPS Beams, in: Proceedings of the 6th Asia-Pacific Structural Engineering and Construction Conference (APSEC), 5-6 September, 2006, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  13. Olanipekun, E.A., Olusola, K.O., and Ata, O., A Comparative Study of Concrete Properties using Coconut Shell and Palm Kernel Shell as Coarse Aggregate, Building and Environment, 41(3), 2006, pp. 297-301. [CrossRef]
  14. Raheem, A.A., Nwakanma, E.O., and Ogunleye, K.O., Engineering Properties of Palm Kernel Shell as Fine and Coarse Aggregates, USEP: Journal of Research Information in Engineering, 5(1), 2008, pp. 56-67.
  15. Shetty, M.S., Concrete Technology: Theory and Practice, S.Chand and Company Ltd, Ram Nagar, New Delhi, 2002.
  16. Alengaram, U.J., Jumaat M.Z., and Mahmud, H., Influence of Cementitious Materials and Aggregate Content on Compressive Strength of Palm Kernel Shell Concrete, Journal of Applied Science, 8(18), 2008, pp. 3207-3213.[CrossRef]
  17. Abang, A.A.A., Utilisation of Agricultural Wastes as Aggregates for Low-cost Construction Materials, Proceedings of a Regional Seminar, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 15–17 September 1982, pp. 127–142.
  18. Mahmud, H., Jumaat, M.Z., and Alengaram, U.J., Influence of Sand/cement Ratio on Mechanical Properties of Palm Kernel Shell Concrete. Journal of Applied Sciences, 2009, pp. 1764-1769.
  19. Babafemi, A.J. and Olawuyi, B. J., Effect of Replacement of Sand with Granite Fines on the Compressive and Tensile Strengths of Palm Kernel Shell Concrete, Proceedings of the West Africa Built Environment Research (WABER) Conference, Accra, Ghana, 19-21 July, 2011, pp. 371-378.
  20. Mindess, S., Young J.F., and Darwin, D., Concrete, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, USA, 2003.
  21. Salam, S.A., Lightweight Concrete Made from Palm Oil Shell Aggregates and Rice Husk. Proceedings of a Regional Seminar. Universiti Putra Malaysia, 1982, pp. 177-196.
  22. Mohd Noor, M.J., Juosh, A., and Ghazali, A.H., Management and Utilisation of Oil Palm Wastes- A Review, Regional Information Centre on the Management and Utilization of Wastes, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 1990.
  23. Okafor, F.O., Eze-Uzomaka, O.J., and Eguniwe, N., The Structural Properties and Optimum Mix Proportions of Palmnut Fibre-reinforced Mortar Composite. Cement and Concrete Research, 26(7), 1996, pp. 1045-1055.[CrossRef]
  24. BS EN 197-1, Cement-Composition, Specifications and Conformity Criteria for Common Cement, British Standards Institution, 2000.
  25. BS EN 12390-3, Testing Hardened Concrete - Part-3: Compressive Strength of Test Specimens, British Standards Institution, 2002.
  26. BS EN 12390-5, Testing Hardened Concrete- Part-5: Flexural Strength of Test Specimens, British Standards Institution, 2000.
  27. Vandevelde, P.E., Structural Mechanics, GEM Engineering Inc., 2008.
  28. Neville, A. M., Properties of Concrete, Addison Wesley, Longman Limited, England, 1995.
  29. Teo, D.C.L., Mannan, M.A., and Kurian, V.J., Utilization of Solid Waste Oil Palm Shell (OPS) in Concrete Production, Proceedings of the International Conference on Natural Resources and Environmental Management, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia, 2005, pp. 135-140.
  30. Portland Cement Association, Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures, Illonios: Shokie, 1979.
  31. Newman, J.B., Properties of Structural Lightweight Aggregate Concrete, Clarke JL, editor, Structural Lightweight Aggregate Concrete. Blackie Academic & Professional, 2003, pp. 19–44.
  32. SAS, Statistical Analysis Software Guide for Personal Computers. Release 9.1. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC 27513, USA, 2002.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.9744/ced.15.1.43-50



CED is published by The Institute of Research & Community Outreach - Petra Christian University, Surabaya, Indonesia

©All right reserved 2016.Civil Engineering Dimension, ISSN: 1410-9530, e-ISSN: 1979-570X

View My Stats