Creep Behaviour of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete
Keywords:creep, fly ash, geopolymer concrete
AbstractFly ash-based geopolymer concrete is manufactured using fly ash as its source material and does not use Portland cement at all. Beside fly ash, alkaline solution is also utilized to make geopolymer paste which binds the aggregates to form geopolymer concrete. This paper presents the study of creep behaviour of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete. Four series of specimens with various compressive strengths were prepared to study its creep behaviour for the duration of test up to one year. The test method followed the procedures applied for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) concrete. Test results show that fly ash-based geopolymer concrete undergoes low creep which is generally less than that of OPC concrete. After one year of loading, the results for specific creep of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete in this study ranges from 15 to 29 microstrain for concrete compressive strength 67–40 MPa respectively. From the test results, it is also found out that the creep coefficient of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete is about half of that predicted using Gilbert’s Method for OPC concrete.
McCaffrey, R., Climate Change and the Cement Industry, Global Cement and Lime Magazine (Environmental Special Issue), 2002, pp. 15-19.
Davidovits, J., Geopolymer Chemistry and Properties. Proceedings of Geopolymer '88, First European Conference on Soft Mineralurgy, The Geopolymer Institute, Compiegne, France, 1988, pp. 25-48.
Davidovits, J., Soft Mineralurgy and Geopolymers, Proceedings of Geopolymer '88, First European Conference on Soft Mineralurgy, The Geopolymer Institute. Compiegne, France, 1988, pp. 19-24.
Davidovits, J., Global Warming Impact on the Cement and Aggregates Industries, World Resource Review, 6(2), 1994, pp. 263-278.
Hardjito, D., Wallah S.E., and Rangan B.V., Study on Engineering Properties of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete, Journal of the Australasian Ceramic Society, 38(1), 2002, pp. 44-47.
Hardjito, D., Wallah, S. E., Sumajouw, D.M.J., and Rangan, B.V., Factors influencing the Compressive Strength of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete, Civil Engineering Dimension (Dimensi Teknik Sipil), 6(2), 2004, pp. 88-93.
Hardjito, D., Wallah, S.E., Sumajouw, D.M.J., and Rangan, B.V., On the Development of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete, ACI Materials Journal, 101(6), 2004, pp. 467-472.
Wallah, S.E., Hardjito, D., Sumajouw, D.M.J., and Rangan. B.V., Geopolymer Concrete: A Key for Better Long-Term Performance and Durability. Proceedings of ICFRC, International Conference on Fibre Composites, High Performance Concretes and Smart Materials. Chennai, India, 2004, pp. 527-539.
Hardjito, D., Wallah, S.E., Sumajouw, D.M.J., and Rangan, B.V., Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete, Australian Journal of Structural Engineering, 6(1), 2005, pp. 77-86.
Sumajouw, D.M.J., Hardjito, D., Wallah, S.E., and Rangan, B.V., Behaviour and Strength of Geopolymer Concrete Columns, 18th Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials, Perth, Australia: A.A. Balkema, Vol 1, 2004, pp. 175-180.
Sumajouw, D.M.J., Hardjito, D., Wallah, S., and Rangan, B.V., Flexural Behaviour of Reinforced Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete Beams. Concrete 05, CIA 22nd Biennial Conference, Concrete Institute of Australia, Melbourne, Australia, 2005.
Neville, A.M., Properties of Concrete, Fourth and Final ed, Pearson Education, Longman Group Essex, England, 2000.
Standards-Australia, Methods of Testing Concrete Determination of Creep of Concrete Cylinders in Compression, AS 1012.16-1996.
Davidovits, J., Geopolymers: Inorganic Polymeric New Materials, Journal of Thermal Analysis, 37, 1991, pp. 1633-1656.
van Jaarsveld, J.G.S., van Deventer, J.S.J., and Lukey, G.C., The Effect of Composition and Temperature on the Properties of Fly Ash and Kaolinite-Based Geopolymers, Chemical Engineering Journal, 89(1-3), 2002, pp. 63-73.
Hardjito, D., Wallah, S.E., Sumajouw, D.M.J., and Rangan, B.V., The Stress-Strain Behaviour of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete, in Development in Mechanics of Structures and Materials, A.J. Decks and H. Hao, Editors, A.A. Balkema Publishers: Leiden, 2004, pp. 831-834.
Neville, A.M., Dilger, W.H., and Brooks, J.J., Creep of Plain and Structural Concrete, Construction Press, Longman Group London, 1983.
Gilbert, R.I., Time Effects in Concrete Structures, Elsevier Amsterdam, 1988.
Warner, R.F., Rangan, B.V., Hall, A.S., and Faulkes, K.A., Concrete Structures, Longman Melbourne, 1998.
Malhotra, V.M. and Mehta, P.K., High-Performance, High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete: Materials, Mixture Proportioning, Properties, Construction Practice, and Case Histories, Supplementary Cementing Materials for Sustainable Development Inc. Ottawa, 2002.
Gilbert, R.I., Creep and Shrinkage Models for High Strength Concrete-Proposal for Inclusion in AS3600, Australian Journal of Structural Engineering, 4(2), 2002, pp. 95-106.
Davidovits, J., Personal Communication on Geopolymer Chemistry. 2005.
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and publishing right, and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) followingthe publication of the article, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).