Settlement Control of Soft Ground using Cement-Ricehusk Stabilization
Keywords:Ricehusk, settlement control, soft soil.
AbstractCement is widely used for improvement of soft soils, but financial and environmental concerns are causing genuine concerns to all parties, leading to the quest for alternative and effective stabilizers. Ricehusk is an agricultural waste in Malaysia, commonly disposed of by open burning or dumping in landfills. Considering that the ashes derived from ricehusk are pozzolanic in nature, there is a possibility that a cement-ricehusk mixture could effectively improve soft soils with reduced cement dosage. This study examines the mixture’s effectiveness by monitoring the settlement reduction in a clay soil. Standard oedometer tests were carried out on a soft marine clay sample admixed with cement-ricehusk. Test specimens contained 0-10% cement and 0-5% of ricehusk respectively, and were left to cure for either seven or 28 days. The stabilized specimens were observed to undergo significant reduction in compressibility, verifying the potential of cement-ricehusk as an alternative soft soil stabilizer.
Coastal Development Institute of Technology (CDIT), The Deep Mixing Method: Principle, Design and Construction, A.A. Balkema Publishers, Tokyo, 2002.
EuroSoilStab, Development of Design and Construction Methods to Stabilize Soft Organic Soils: Design Guide Soft Soil Stabilization, Brussels: CT97-0351, 2002.
Sing, W.L., Hashim, R., and Basha, E.A., Chemical Reactions of Residual Soil Stabilized by Portland Cement and Rice Husk Ash, Proc. of the World Engineering Congress, Malaysia, 2007, pp. 399-407.
Broms, B.B., Stabilization of Soft Clay with Lime and Cement Columns in Southeast Asia: Applied Research Project RP10/83, Nanyang Technical Institute, Singapore, 1986.
Romano, J.S. and Rodrigues, F.A., Cements Obtained From Rice Hull: Encapsulation of Heavy Metals, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 154, 2008, pp. 1075-1080.[CrossRef]
Basha, E.A., Hashim, R., Mahmud, H.B. and Muntohar, A.S., Stabilization of Residual Soil with Rice Husk Ash and Cement, Construction and Building Materials, 19, 2005, pp. 448-453.[CrossRef]
Sarkawi, S.S. and Aziz, Y., Ground Rice Husk as Filler in Rubber Compounding. Jurnal Teknologi (UTM), 39(A), 2003, pp. 135-148.
Rahman, M.A., Effect of Cement-rice Husk Ash Mixtures on Geotechnical Properties of Lateritic Soils, Soils and Foundations, 27(2), 1987, pp. 32-40.[CrossRef]
Muntohar, A.S., Influence of Plastic Waste Fibres on the Strength of Lime–ricehusk Ash Stabilized Clay Soil, Civil Engineering Dimen-sion, 11(1), 2009, pp. 32-40.
Muntohar, A.S., The Influence of Molding Water Content and Lime Content on the Strength of Stabilized Soil with Lime and Rice Husk Ash, Civil Engineering Dimension, 7(1), 2005, pp. 1-5.
Muntohar, A.S., Utilization of Uncontrolled Burnt Rice Husk Ash in Soil Improvement, Civil Engineering Dimension, 4(2), 2002, pp. 100-105.
Ibrahim, K.A., Alternative Road Construction Materials using Clay Admixed with Natural Wastes, Bachelor‟s degree thesis, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 2007.
British Standards Institution (BSI), BS1377: British Standard Methods of Test for Soils for Civil Engineering Purposes, 1990.
Chan, C.M., A Laboratory Investigation of Shear Wave Velocity in Stabilized Soft Soils, PhD thesis, University of Sheffield, 2005.
Lee, K.H. and Lee, S., Mechanical Properties of Weakly Bonded Cement Stabilized Kaolin, KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 6(4), 2002, pp. 389-398.[CrossRef]
Bergado, D.T., Anderson, L.R., Miura, N. and Balasubramaniam, A.S., Soft Ground Improvement in Lowland and other Environments, ASCE Press, New York, 1996.
Feng, T.W., Lee, J.Y. and Lee, Y.J., Consolidation Behaviour of a Soft Mud Treated with Small Cement Content, Journal of Engineering Geology, 59, 2001, pp. 327-335.[CrossRef]
Sakr, M.A. and Shahin, M.A., Utilization of Lime for Stabilizing Soft Clay Soil of High Organic Content, Geotechnical and Geological Engineer-ing, 27, 2009, pp. 105-113.[CrossRef]
Head, K.H., Manual of Soil Laboratory Testing Volume 2: Permeability, Shear Strength and Compressibility Tests, Pentech Press, London, 1982.
Rao, S.M. and Shivananda, P., Compressibility Behaviour of Lime-Treated Clay, Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 23, 2005, pp. 309-319.[CrossRef]
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and publishing right, and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) followingthe publication of the article, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).