Settlement Control of Soft Ground using Cement-Ricehusk Stabilization


  • Chan, C-M. Senior Lecturer/Research Fellow, Research Centre for Soft Soils (RECESS), Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), 86400 Parit Raja, BatuPahat, Johor
  • Mokhtar, M. Research Fellow, Research Centre for Soft Soils (RECESS), Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), 86400 Parit Raja, BatuPahat, Johor



Ricehusk, settlement control, soft soil.


Cement is widely used for improvement of soft soils, but financial and environmental concerns are causing genuine concerns to all parties, leading to the quest for alternative and effective stabilizers. Ricehusk is an agricultural waste in Malaysia, commonly disposed of by open burning or dumping in landfills. Considering that the ashes derived from ricehusk are pozzolanic in nature, there is a possibility that a cement-ricehusk mixture could effectively improve soft soils with reduced cement dosage. This study examines the mixture’s effectiveness by monitoring the settlement reduction in a clay soil. Standard oedometer tests were carried out on a soft marine clay sample admixed with cement-ricehusk. Test specimens contained 0-10% cement and 0-5% of ricehusk respectively, and were left to cure for either seven or 28 days. The stabilized specimens were observed to undergo significant reduction in compressibility, verifying the potential of cement-ricehusk as an alternative soft soil stabilizer.


Coastal Development Institute of Technology (CDIT), The Deep Mixing Method: Principle, Design and Construction, A.A. Balkema Publishers, Tokyo, 2002.

EuroSoilStab, Development of Design and Construction Methods to Stabilize Soft Organic Soils: Design Guide Soft Soil Stabilization, Brussels: CT97-0351, 2002.

Sing, W.L., Hashim, R., and Basha, E.A., Chemical Reactions of Residual Soil Stabilized by Portland Cement and Rice Husk Ash, Proc. of the World Engineering Congress, Malaysia, 2007, pp. 399-407.

Broms, B.B., Stabilization of Soft Clay with Lime and Cement Columns in Southeast Asia: Applied Research Project RP10/83, Nanyang Technical Institute, Singapore, 1986.

Romano, J.S. and Rodrigues, F.A., Cements Obtained From Rice Hull: Encapsulation of Heavy Metals, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 154, 2008, pp. 1075-1080.[CrossRef]

Basha, E.A., Hashim, R., Mahmud, H.B. and Muntohar, A.S., Stabilization of Residual Soil with Rice Husk Ash and Cement, Construction and Building Materials, 19, 2005, pp. 448-453.[CrossRef]

Sarkawi, S.S. and Aziz, Y., Ground Rice Husk as Filler in Rubber Compounding. Jurnal Teknologi (UTM), 39(A), 2003, pp. 135-148.

Rahman, M.A., Effect of Cement-rice Husk Ash Mixtures on Geotechnical Properties of Lateritic Soils, Soils and Foundations, 27(2), 1987, pp. 32-40.[CrossRef]

Muntohar, A.S., Influence of Plastic Waste Fibres on the Strength of Lime–ricehusk Ash Stabilized Clay Soil, Civil Engineering Dimen-sion, 11(1), 2009, pp. 32-40.

Muntohar, A.S., The Influence of Molding Water Content and Lime Content on the Strength of Stabilized Soil with Lime and Rice Husk Ash, Civil Engineering Dimension, 7(1), 2005, pp. 1-5.

Muntohar, A.S., Utilization of Uncontrolled Burnt Rice Husk Ash in Soil Improvement, Civil Engineering Dimension, 4(2), 2002, pp. 100-105.

Ibrahim, K.A., Alternative Road Construction Materials using Clay Admixed with Natural Wastes, Bachelor‟s degree thesis, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 2007.

British Standards Institution (BSI), BS1377: British Standard Methods of Test for Soils for Civil Engineering Purposes, 1990.

Chan, C.M., A Laboratory Investigation of Shear Wave Velocity in Stabilized Soft Soils, PhD thesis, University of Sheffield, 2005.

Lee, K.H. and Lee, S., Mechanical Properties of Weakly Bonded Cement Stabilized Kaolin, KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 6(4), 2002, pp. 389-398.[CrossRef]

Bergado, D.T., Anderson, L.R., Miura, N. and Balasubramaniam, A.S., Soft Ground Improvement in Lowland and other Environments, ASCE Press, New York, 1996.

Feng, T.W., Lee, J.Y. and Lee, Y.J., Consolidation Behaviour of a Soft Mud Treated with Small Cement Content, Journal of Engineering Geology, 59, 2001, pp. 327-335.[CrossRef]

Sakr, M.A. and Shahin, M.A., Utilization of Lime for Stabilizing Soft Clay Soil of High Organic Content, Geotechnical and Geological Engineer-ing, 27, 2009, pp. 105-113.[CrossRef]

Head, K.H., Manual of Soil Laboratory Testing Volume 2: Permeability, Shear Strength and Compressibility Tests, Pentech Press, London, 1982.

Rao, S.M. and Shivananda, P., Compressibility Behaviour of Lime-Treated Clay, Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 23, 2005, pp. 309-319.[CrossRef]




How to Cite

C-M., C., & M., M. (2012). Settlement Control of Soft Ground using Cement-Ricehusk Stabilization. Civil Engineering Dimension, 14(2), 69-76.