Influence of Rainfall Patterns on the Instability of Slopes
Keywords:Probability, rainfall pattern, rainstorm, shallow landslide, slope.
AbstractThe assessment of rainstorm-induced shallow landslides is still a research topic of wide concern for scientists and engineers. This paper examined the effect of rainfall intensity distribution on shallow landslides. Four synthetic rainfall distributions comprising uniformed, delayed, centralized, and advanced, were selected to examine the effect of rainstorm patterns on slope failure. The infiltration was modeled using Green-Ampt equation, while an infinite slope was selected to model the shallow landslide. Monte Carlo Simulation was applied to analyze the failure probability of the slopes. Two landslide cases were selected to examine the proposed model. The results indicated that among the four representative rainstorm patterns, the advanced rainfall pattern caused worst slope stability. The advanced rainfall pattern resulted in the shortest rainfall duration threshold for landslide occurrence, followed by the central, uniform, and then delayed rainfall pattern. The probabilistic analysis method was suitable to estimate the time of failure for the evaluated landslide cases.
Gofar, N. and Lee, L.M., Extreme Rainfall Characteristics for Surface Slope Stability in the Malaysian Peninsular, Georisk, 2(2), 2008, pp. 65-78.
Green, W.H. and Ampt, G., Studies of Soil Physics, Part 1. The Flow of Air and Water through Soils, Journal of Agricultural Science, 4, 1911, pp. 1-24.
Kale, R.V. and Sahoo, B., Green-Ampt Infiltration Models for Varied Field Conditions: A Revisit, Water Resources Management, 25(14), 2011, pp. 3505-3536[CrossRef]
Richards, L.A., Capillary Conduction through Porous Mediums, Physics, 1, 1931, pp 313-318.[CrossRef]
Mishra, S.K., Tyagi, J.V., and Singh, V.P., Comparison of Infiltration Models, Hydrological Processes, 17(13), 2003, pp. 2629–2652.[CrossRef]
Ma, Y., Feng, S., Zhan, H., Liu, X., Su, D., Kang, S., and Song, X., Water Infiltration in Layered Soils with Air Entrapment: Modified Green-Ampt Model and Experimental Validation. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 16(8), 2010, pp. 628-638.[CrossRef]
Philip, J.R, Hillslope Infiltration: Planar slopes, Water Resources Research, 27(1), 1991, pp. 109–117.[CrossRef]
Muntohar A.S. and Ikhsan J., Numerical and Experimental Studies of Rainfall Infiltration Induced Slope Stability, Final Report of Fundamental Research Grant, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta–Directorate General Higher Education, Ministry of Education and Cultural, 2012.
Chow, V.T., Maidment, D.R., and Mays, L.W., Subsurface Water, in Applied Hydrology, Mc. Graw-Hill: New York, 1988.
Montgomery, D.R. and Dietrich, W.E., A Physically Based Model for the Topographic Control on Shallow Landslide, Water Resources Research, 30, 1994, pp. 83–92.[CrossRef]
Wu, W. and Sidle, R.C., A Distributed Slope Stability Model for Steep Forested Basins, Water Resources Research, 31, 1995, pp. 2097–2110[CrossRef]
Borga, M., Fontana, G.D., De Ros, D., and Marchi, L., Shallow Landslide Hazard Assessment using a Physically Based Model and Digital Elevation Data, Environmental Geology, 35, 1998, pp. 81–88.[CrossRef]
Iverson, R.M., Landslide Triggering by Rain Infiltration, Water Resources Research, 36(7), 2000, pp. 1897-1910[CrossRef]
Crosta, G.B. and Frattini, P., Distributed Modeling of Shallow Landslides Triggered by Intense Rainfall, Natural Hazard Earth System and Sciences, 3, 2003, pp. 81–93.[CrossRef]
Collins, B.D. and Znidarcic, D., Stability Analyses of Rainfall Induced Landslides, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 130(4), 2004, pp. 362–372.[CrossRef]
Tsai T.L. and Yang J.C., Modeling of Rainfall-Triggered Shallow Landslide, Environmental Geology, 50(4), 2006, pp. 525–534.[CrossRef]
Tsai, T.L., The Influence of Rainstorm Pattern on Shallow Landslide, Environmental Geology, 53(7), 2008, 1563–1570.[CrossRef]
Xie, M.W., Esaki, T., and Cai, M.F., A Time-Space Based Approach for Mapping Rainfall-Induced Shallow Landslide Hazard, Environmental Geology, 46(7), 2004, pp. 840-850.[CrossRef]
Muntohar, A.S. and Liao, H.J., Rainfall Infiltration: Infinite Slope Model for Landslides Triggering by Rainstorm, Natural Hazards, 54(3), 2011, pp. 967–984.[CrossRef]
Tobutt, D.C., Monte Carlo Simulation Methods for Slope Stability, Computers and Geosciences, 8(2), 1982, pp. 199–208[CrossRef]
Wang, Y., Cao, Z., and Au, S.K., Practical Reliability Analysis of Slope Stability Bb Advanced Monte Carlo Simulations in a Spreadsheet, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 48(1), 2011, pp. 162–172.[CrossRef]
Ng, C.W.W., Wang, B., and Tung, Y.K., Three-Dimensional Numerical Investigation of Groundwater Responses in an Unsaturated Slope Subjected to Various Rainfall Patterns. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 38, 2001, pp. 1049-1062.[CrossRef]
de Lima, J.L.M.P. and Singh, V.P., The Influence of the Pattern of Moving Rainstorm on Overland Flow, Advanced Water Resources, 25, 2002, pp. 817–828.[CrossRef]
Shapiro, S.S. and Wilk, M.B., An Analysis of Variance Test for Normality (complete samples), Biometrika, 52(3-4), 1965, pp. 591–611.[CrossRef]
Tang, W.H., Stark, T.D., and Angulo M., Reliability in Back Analysis of Slope Failures, Soils and Foundations, 39(5), 1999, pp. 73-80.[CrossRef]
Chen, H., The Geomorphological Comparison of Two Debris Flows and Their Triggering Mechanisms, Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 58(4), 2000, pp 297-308.[CrossRef]
Chen, H., Controlling Factors of Hazardous Debris Flow in Taiwan, Quaternary International, 147(1), 2006, pp. 3-15.[CrossRef]
Matsushi, Y., Hattanji, T., and Matsukura, Y., Mechanisms of Shallow Landslides on Soil-Mantled Hillslopes with Permeable and Impermeable Bedrocks in the Boso Peninsula, Japan, Geomorphology, 76(1-2), 2006, pp. 92-108.[CrossRef]
Silva, F., Lambe, T.W., and Marr, W.A., Probability and Risk of Slope Failure, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 134(12), 2008, pp. 1691–1699.[CrossRef]
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and publishing right, and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) followingthe publication of the article, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).