Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Reverse Bending and Straightening Process on Carbon Steel Bars used for Civil Engineering Applications
Keywords:Carbon steel bars, hardness, microstructure, reverse bending and straightening, tensile property.
AbstractThis paper presents an experimental investigation of the effects of reverse bending and straightening process on the mechanical properties of a typical carbon steel bar used for civil engineering applications. Twenty four specimens each were used for the metallogarphy, microhardness and tensile tests. The investigation revealed that the reverse bending and straightening process has no significant effect on the bars’ through-thickness microstructure and hardness. However, the reverse bending and straightening process reduces the yield load, ultimate load, and displacement at fracture of the bars by 4.27%, 2.58%, and 18.62% respectively. These results highlight the need to take into consideration the effects of the previous loading history of the bars/wires, particularly the reduction in the displacement at fracture and consequently, the ductility of the bars/wires in the design and fitness for purpose assessment of components made from them, since the bars/wires could experience high strain during installation and in service due to overloads.
Sengupta, A. K. and Menon, D., Pre-Stressed Concrete Structures, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/ IITMADRAS/PreStressed-Concrete-Structures/ pdf/1_Introduction/1.7_Prestressing_Steel.pdf, assessed on 25/09/2012.
Smith, B.O., Jenning, A.P.H., and Grimshaw, A.G., A Portable Lamination Detector for Steel Sheet, The British Iron and Steel Research Association, Battersea Park Road, London, 1957.
Gillstrom, P. and Jarl, M., Mechanical Descaling of Wire Rod using Reverse Bending and Brushing, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 172, 2006, pp. 332-340.[CrossRef]
ASTM E8M., Standard Test Method for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials, American Society for Testing of Materials, 2009.
BS EN 10002-1, Tensile Testing of Metallic Materials. Method of Test at Ambient Temperature, British Standards Institutes, 2001.
Takeda, T. and Chen Z. Yield Behavior of Mild Steel after Prestraining and Aging under Reversed Stress. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 30, 1999, pp. 411-416.
Han, K., Van Tyne, C.J., and Levy, B.S., Effect of Strain and Strain Rate on the Bauschinger Effect Response of Three Different Steels, Metallurgical and Material Transactions A, 36, 2005, pp. 2379-2384.
Terada K., Matsui, K., Akiyama, M., and Kuboki T., Numerical Re-examination of the Microscale Mechanism of the Bauschinger Effect in Carbon Steels, Computational Material Science, 31, 2004, pp. 67-83.[CrossRef]
Boger, R.K., Wagoner, R.H., Barlat, F., Lee, M.G., and Chung K., Continuous Large Strain Tension/Compression Testing of Sheet Material, International Journal of Plasticity, 21, 2005, pp. 2319-2343.[CrossRef]
United States Bureau of Reclamation, Prestressed Concrete Pipe Failure, Jordan Aqueduct, Reach 3. All U.S. Government Documents (Utah Regional Depository). Paper 284, http://digital-commons.usu.edu/govdocs/284, 1994, assessed on 15/11/2012.
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and publishing right, and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) followingthe publication of the article, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).