Extreme Rainfall Indices for Tropical Monsoon Countries in Southeast Asia
Keywords:Climate variation, extreme rainfall, Mann-Kendall test, rainfall pattern
AbstractSoutheast Asian countries have the possibility to have rainfall and number of extreme rainfall event change due to future climate variation. This paper proposed three extreme rainfall indices as a modification of climate extremes indices from CLIMDEX Project by researchers at the Climate Change Research Centre (CCRC), the University of New South Wales (UNSW). The proposed indices aim to be used as a parameter for observing extreme rainfall events in tropical monsoon countries. Eleven extreme precipitation indices from CLIMDEX Project and the three proposed extreme precipitation for tropical monsoon countries are systematically analyzed based on data of daily rainfall from meteorological stations in Bangkok and Jakarta. Mann-Kendall test was used to observe the trend of extreme rainfall. In general, the analysis of a total of 14 extreme indices show both Bangkok and Jakarta received more rainfall during rainy season and less rainfall during dry season. Specifically, a significant increasing trend of extreme rainfall indices (R60 and R80) was revealed using the proposed indices.
IPCC, Climate Change 2007: The Physiscal Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group II to The Fourth Assessment Report on The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Cambridge University Press, UK, 2007.
Zhang, X., Vincent, L.A., Hogg, W.D., and Niitso, A., Temperature and Precipitation Trends in Canada during the 20th Century, Atmosphere Ocean, 38(3), 2000, pp. 395–429. Retrieved on July 21, 2008 from: http://www.cmos.ca/Ao/articles/ v380301.pdf., 2000, pp. 395–429.
Manton, M.J., Della-Marta, P.M., Haylock, M.R., Hennessy, K.J., Nicholls, N., Chambers, L.E., et al., Trends in Extreme Daily Rainfall and Temperature in Southeast Asia and The South Pacific: 1961–1998, International Journal of Climatology, 2008. Retrieved on July 30, 2008 from: http://www.cig.ensmp.fr/~iahs/hsj/420/hysj_ 42_03_0301.pdf.
Shantha, W.W.A. and Jayasundra, J.M.S.B, Study on Changes of Rainfall in the Mahaweli Uppers Watershed in Sri Lanka, due to Climate Change and Develop a Correlation Model for Global Warming. Retrieved on May 5, 2008 from:http://www.stabilization2005.com/posters/Shantha_WWA.pdf.
CLIMDEX Project, CLIMDEX: Climate Extreme Indices. Retrieved on August 10, 2014 from: http://www.climdex.org/indices.html, 2014.
World Climate, Average Monthly Rainfall in Bangkok, 2008,Retrieved on July 30, 2008, from: http://www.worldclimate.com/cgi-bin/data.pl?ref= N13E100+2100+48455W.
World Climate, Average Monthly Rainfall in Jakarta, 2008,Retrieved on July 30, 2008 from: Source: http://www.worldclimate.com/cgi-bin/data. pl?ref=S06E106+2100+96745W.
Helsel, D.R. and Hirsch, R.M. Book 4: Hydrological Analysis and Interpretation (Chapter A3, Statistical Methods in Water Resources). USGS, USA, 1991.
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Appendix D-Mann Kendall Analysis. Hydrogeologic, Inc.-OU-1 Annual Groundwater Monitoring Report-Former Ford Ord, California, 2005.
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and publishing right, and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) followingthe publication of the article, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).