Integration of Theory of Planned Behavior and Norm Activation Model on Student Behavior Model Using Cars for Traveling to Campus


  • Setiawan, R. Department of Civil Engineering, Petra Christian University, Surabaya
  • Santosa, W. Department of Civil Engineering, Parahyangan Catholic University, Bandung
  • Sjafruddin, A. Department of Civil Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung



Students’ car use, theory of planned behavior, norm activation model


Although there are clear environmental, economic, and social drawbacks in using private vehicles, students still choose cars to get to campus. This study reports an investigation of psychological factors influencing this behavior from the perspective of the Theory of Planned Behavior and Norm Activation Model. Students from three different university campuses in Surabaya, Indonesia, (n = 312) completed a survey on their car commuting behavior. Results indicated that perceived behavioral control and personal norm were the strongest factors that influence behavioral intention. Attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and personal norm explain 62.7% variance of the behavioral intention. In turn, behavioral intention explains 42.5% of the variance of the actual car use. Implications of these findings are that in order to alter the use of car, university should implement both structural and psychological interventions. Effective interventions should be designed to raise the awareness of negative aspects of car use.


Poinsatte, F. and Toor, W., Finding a New Way: Campus Transportation for the 21st Century, University of Colorado Environmental Center, 1999. Retrieved on 2012-09-23 http://www.colo­ e5506f80de570bfa902419c8584179bfbae0f87f.pdf

Bond, A. and Steiner, R.L., Sustainable Campus Transportation through Transit Partnership and Transportation Demand Management: A Case Study from the University of Florida, Berkeley Planning Journal, 19(1), 2006, pp. 125–142.

Toor, W. and Havlick, S.W., Transportation & Sustainable Campus Communities: Issues, Exam­ples, Solutions, First edition, Island Press, Washington, DC, 2004.

Steg, L. and Gifford, R., Sustainable Trans­portation and Quality of Life, Journal of Transport Geography, 13(1), 2005, pp. 59–69.[CrossRef]

Steg, L., Vlek, C., and Slotegraaf, G., Instru­mental-reasoned and Symbolic-affective Motives for using a Motor Car, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 4(3), 2001, pp. 151–169.[CrossRef]

Stradling, S.G., Handbook of Traffic Psychology, First edition, Chapter 34 Travel Mode Choice, Academic Press, UK, 2011.

Steg, L., Affective Motives for Car Use, Euro­pean Transport Conference, 1999, pp. 13–28.

Garling, T., Changes of Private Car Use in Response to Travel Demand Management, 3rd International Conference on Traffic & Transport, Nottingham, UK, 2004, Retrieved on 2012-05-07

Klöckner, C.A. and Matthies, E., Structural Modeling of Car Use on the Way to the University in Different Settings: Interplay of Norms, Habits, Situational Restraints, and Per­ceived Behavioral Control, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39(8), 2009, pp. 1807–1834.[CrossRef]

Ortuzar, J. and Willumsen, L., Modelling Trans­port, Third edition, John Wiley & Sons, UK, 2001.

Domarchi, C., Tudela, A., and González, A., Effect of Attitudes, Habit and Affective Apprai­sal on Mode Choice: An Application to Univer­sity Workers, Transportation, 35(5), 2008, pp. 585–599.[CrossRef]

Vredin Johansson, M., Heldt, T. and Johansson, P., The Effects of Attitudes and Personality Traits on Mode Choice, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 40(6), 2006, pp. 507–525.[CrossRef]

Anable, J., Lane, B., and Kelay, T., An Evidence Base Review of Public Attitudes to Climate Change and Transport Behaviour, 2006. Retriev­­ed on 2012-05-07­tions/pgr-sustainable-eviewtransportbehavi­our­cli­matechan ge-pdf/iewofpublicattitudes­tocl5730. Pdf.

Ajzen, I., The Theory of Planned Behavior, Orga­nizational Behavior and Human Decision Pro­cesses, 50(2), 1991, pp. 179–211.[CrossRef]

Ajzen, I. and Manstead, A.S.R., Changing Health-related Behaviours: An Approach Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour, in Van den Bos, K., Hewstone, M., de Wit., J., Schut, H., and Stroebe, M. (Eds.), The Scope of Social Psycho­logy: Theory and Applications, Psychology Press, New York, NY, 2007, pp. 43-63.

Bamberg, S. and Schmidt, P., Incentives, Mora­lity, or Habit?: Predicting Students’ Car Use for University Routes with the Models of Ajzen, Schwartz, and Triandis, Environment & Beha­vior, 35(2), 2003, pp. 264–285.[CrossRef]

Gardner, B., Modelling Motivation and Habit in Stable Travel Mode Contexts, Transportation Research Part F: Psychology and Behaviour, 12(1), 2009, pp. 68–76.[CrossRef]

Abrahamse, W., Steg, L., Gifford, R., and Vlek, C., Factors Influencing Car Use for Commuting and the Intention to Reduce It: A Question of Self-interest or Morality?, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Beha­viour, 12(4), 2009, pp. 317–324.[CrossRef]

Setiawan, R., Model Perilaku Mahasiswa Peng­guna Mobil ke Kampus, Doctoral Disertation in Civil Engineering, Postgraduate Program, Parah­yangan Catholic University, Bandung, 2014.

Sarjono, H., and Julianita, W., SPSS vs LISREL, First edition,Penerbit Salemba Empat, Jakarta, 2011.

Schwab, A.J., Detecting Outliers, 2012, Retriev­ed on 2012-10-10 schwab/sw388r7_spring_2005/SolvingProblems/DetectingOutliers_spring2005.ppt

Arbuckle, J.L., AMOS 21 User’s Guide, Retriev­ed on 2012-05-07­ware/analytics/spss/documentation/amos/21.0/en/Manuals/IBM_SPSS_Amos_Users_Guide.pdf




How to Cite

R., S., W., S., & A., S. (2014). Integration of Theory of Planned Behavior and Norm Activation Model on Student Behavior Model Using Cars for Traveling to Campus. Civil Engineering Dimension, 16(2), 117-122.