Initial Surface Absorption of Cement Combination Concrete
Keywords:Blended cement, concrete, initial surface absorption, permeation resistance, supple¬mentary cementitious materials
AbstractThis paper investigated the initial surface absorption (ISAT) of concrete using Portland cement (PC) and some binary and ternary cement combinations containing fly ash (FA), silica fume (SF) and metakaolin (MK) as partial replacements for PC at equal water/ cement ratios and strengths. At equal water/cement ratios, the cement combination concretes have higher ISAT values than PC concrete at 28 days and the disparity reduced with increasing curing age due to improved pozzolanic reactivity of the supplementary cementitious materials. SF and MK as binary and ternary cement components performed better than FA due to their higher fineness, improved particle packing and higher pozzolanic reactivity. At equal strengths, FA binary cement concretes have the lowest ISAT values and these reduced with increasing content of FA. At total replacement levels more than 20%, all the ternary cement concretes have lower ISAT values than PC concrete and the values reduced with increasing total replacement level due to the beneficial effect of FA.
Folagbade, S. O., Absorption Characteristics of Cement Combination Concrete Containing Portland Cement, Fly Ash, and Metakaolin, Civil Engineering Dimension, 18(1), 2016, pp. 57-64.
BS EN 197- 1: 2000, Cement- Part 1: Composition, Specifications and Conformity Criteria for Common Cements, British Standards Institution, London.
European Ready Mixed Concrete Organisation. Available at http://www.ermco.eu/documents. Accessed July 18, 2015.
BS 1881- 208: 1996, Testing Concrete- Part 208: Recommendations for the Determination of the Initial Surface Absorption of Concrete, British Standards Institution, London.
Mehta, P, K. and Aitcin P. C., Principles Underlying Production of High-Performance Concrete, Cement Concrete and Aggregates, 12, 1990, pp. 70-78.
Bentz, D. P., Stutzman, P. E., and Garboczi, E. J., Experimental and Simulation Studies of the Interfacial Zone in Concrete, Cement And Concrete Research, 22(5), 1992, pp. 891-902.
Wild, S., Khatib, J. M., and Jones, A., Relative Strength Pozzolanic Activity and Cement Hydration in Superplasticised Metakaolin Concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, 26(10), 1996, pp. 1537-1544.
Bai, J., Sabir, B. B., Wild, S., and Kinuthia, J. M., Strength Development in Concrete Incorporating PFA and Metakaolin, Magazine of Concrete Research, 52(3), 2000, pp. 153-162.
Hassan, K. E., Cabrera, J. G., and Maliehe, R. S., The Effect of Mineral Admixtures on the Properties of High-Performance Concrete, Cement and Concrete Composites, 22(4), 2000, pp. 267-271.
Bai, J. and Wild, S., Investigation of the Temperature Change and Heat of Evolution of Mortar Incorporating PFA and Metakaolin, Cement and Concrete Composites, 24(2), 2000, pp. 201-209.
Langan, B. W., Weng, K., and Ward, M. A., Effect of Silica Fume and Fly Ash on Heat of Hydration of Portland Cement, Cement and Concrete Research, 32(7), 2002, pp. 1045-1051.
Mindess, S., Young, F. J., and Darwin, D., Concrete, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 2003.
Korpa, A., Kowald, T., and Trettin, R., Hydration Behaviour, Structure and Morphology Phases in Advanced Cement Based Systems Containing Micro and Nanoscale Pozzolanic Additives, Cement and Concrete Research, 38(7), 2008, pp. 955-962.
Bai, J., Wild, S., Sabir, B.B., and Kinuthia, J.M., Workability of Concrete Incorporating Pulverized Fuel Ash and Metakaolin, Magazine of Concrete Research, 51(3), 1999, pp. 207-216.
Bouzoubaa, N., Bilodeau, A., Sivasundaram, V., Fournier, B., and Golden, D. M., Development of Ternary Blends for High Performance Concrete, ACI Material Journal, 10(1), 2004, pp. 19-29.
Khatib, J. M. and Clay, R. M., Absorption Characteristics of Metakaolin Concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, 34(1), 2004, pp. 19-29.
Wong, H. S. and AbdulRazak, H., Efficiency of Calcined Kaolin and Silica Fume as Cement Replacement Material for Strength Performance, Cement and Concrete Research, 35(4), 2005, pp. 696-702.
Park, C. K., Noh, M. H., and Park, T. H., Rheological Properties of Cementitious Materials Containing Mineral Admixtures, Cement and Concrete Research, 35(5), 2005, pp. 842-849.
Antiohos, S. K., Papadakis, V. G., Chaniotakis, E., and Tsimas, S., Improving the Performance of Ternary Blended Cements by Mixing Different Type Fly Ashes, Cement and Concrete Research, 37(6), 2007, pp. 877-885.
Thomas, M. D. A., Shehata, M. H., Shashiprakash, S. G., Hopkins, D. S., and Cail, K., Use of Ternary Cementitious Systems Containing Silica Fume and Fly Ash in Concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, 29(8), 1999, pp. 1207-1214.
Dhir, R. K., McCarthy, M. J., and Paine, K. A., Use of Fly Ash to BS EN 450 in Structural Concrete, Thomas Telford, 2002, 878p.
Lam, L., Wong, Y. L., and Poon, C. S., Effect of Fly Ash and Silica Fume on Compressive and Fracture Behaviours of Concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, 28(2), 1998, pp. 271-283.
Naik, T. R., Singh, S., and Ramme, B., Mechanical Properties and Durability of Concrete made with Blended Fly Ash, ACI Material Journal, 95(4), 1998, pp. 454-462.
Dhir, R. K. and Jones, M. R., Development of Chloride-Resisting Concrete using Fly Ash, Fuel, 78(2), 1999, pp. 137-142.
Mehta, P. K. and Gjorv, O. E., Properties of Portland Cement Concrete Containing Fly Ash and Condensed Silica Fume, Cement and Concrete Research, 12(5), 1982, pp. 587-595.
Khan, M. I., Lynsdale, C. J., and Waldron, P., Porosity and Strength of PFA/SF/OPC Ternary Blended Paste, Cement and Concrete Research, 30(8), 2000, pp. 1225-1229.
Khan, M. I. and Lynsdale, C. J., Strength, Permeability, and Carbonation of High-Performance Concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, 32(1), 2002, pp. 123-131.
BS EN 450- 1: 2002, Fly Ash for Concrete- Part 1: Definitions, Specifications and Conformity Criteria, British Standards Institution, London.
BS EN 13263: 2005, Silica Fume for Concrete, British Standards Institution, London.
Holland, T. C., Silica Fume User’s Manual, Silica Fume Association, Lovettsville, VA 22180, USA, 2005.BS EN 196-2: 2005, Methods for Testing Cement-Part 2: Chemical Analysis of Cement, British Standards Institution, London.
BS EN 1097- 6: 2000, Tests for Mechanical and Physical Properties of Aggregates-Part 6: Determination of Particle Density and Water Absorption, British Standards Institution, London.
Teychenne, D. C., Franklin, R. E., and Erntroy, H. C., Design of Normal Concrete Mixes, 2nd Ed., amended by B. K. Marsh, Building Research Establishment, Watford, 1997.
BS EN 1008: 2002, Mixing Water for Concrete- Specification for Sampling, Testing, and Assessing the Suitability of Water, Including Water Recovered From Processes in the Concrete Industry, as Mixing Water for Concrete, British Stan-dards Institution, London.
BS EN 934-2: 2009, Admixtures for Concrete, Mortar, and Grout- Part 2: Concrete Admixtures- Definitions, Requirements, Conformity, Marking and Labelling, British Standards Institution, London.
BS EN 206-1: 2000, Concrete- Part 1: Specification, Performance, Production and Conformity, British Standards Institution, London.
BS EN 12390-2: 2000, Testing Hardened Concrete- Part 2: Making and Curing Specimens for Strength Tests, British Standards Institution, London.
BS EN 12390-3: 2002, Testing Hardened Concrete-Part 3: Compressive Strength of Test Specimens, British Standards Institution, London.
Lea, F. M., Lea’s Chemistry of Cement and Concrete, 4th Ed., Arnold, London, 1998.
McCarthy, M. J. and Dhir, R. K., Development of High Volume Fly Ash Cements for Use in Concrete Construction, Fuel, 84, 2005, pp. 1423-1432.
BS 8500-1: 2006, Concrete- Complementary British Standard to BS EN 206-1-Part 1: Method of Specifying and Guidance for The Specifier, British Standards Institution, London.
BS 8500-2: 2006, Concrete-Complementary British Standard to BS EN 206-1-Part 2: Specification for Constituent Materials and Concrete, British Standards Institution, London.
Dhir, R. K. and Byars, E. A., PFA Concrete: Near Surface Absorption Properties. Magazine of Concrete Research, 43(157), 1991, pp. 219-232.
Dias, W.P.S., Nanayakkara, S.M.A., and Ekneligoda, T. C., Performance of Concrete Mixes With OPC-PFA Blends, Magazine of Concrete Research, 55(2), 2003, pp 161-170.
How to Cite
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and publishing right, and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) followingthe publication of the article, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).