Simple Mechanical Beneficiation Method of Coarse Fly Ash with High LOI for Making HVFA Mortar


  • Antoni , Department of Civil Engineering, Petra Christian University, Jl Siwalankerto 121-131, Surabaya 60236
  • Vindy Satrya Postgraduate Program in Civil Engineering, Petra Christian University, Jl. Siwalankerto 121-131, Surabaya 60236
  • Djwantoro Hardjito Department of Civil Engineering, Petra Christian University, Jl Siwalankerto 121-131, Surabaya 60236



Fly ash, HVFA, high LOI, mechanical beneficiation, milling.


This study focusses on the effect of milling of fly ash obtained from four different sources on the properties of high volume fly ash (HVFA) mortar. Two fly ash samples with low loss-on-ignition (LOI) were taken from a coal-fired power plant, while the other two with high LOIs were obtained from a textile factory and from a paper mill, respectively. Milling was performed using a rod mill at a certain period of time. The workability of HVFA mortar with constant water to cementitious ratio was controlled by adjusting the superplasticizer content. The results show that the specific gravity of fly ash increases after milling. Utilizing milled fly ash ends up with significant strength increase of HVFA mortar, especially those utilizing high LOI fly ash. This shows that milling is an excellent fly ash beneficiation technique, especially on the one with high LOI value.


Soong, Y., Schoffstall, M.R., Gray, M.L., Knoer, J.P., Champagne, K.J., Jones, R.J., and Fauth, D.J., Dry Beneficiation of High Lossonignition Fly Ash, Separation and Purification Technology, 26(2-3), 2002, pp. 177–184.[CrossRef]

Yao, Z.T., Ji, X.S., Sarker, P.K., Tang, J.H., Ge, L.Q., Xia, M.S., and Xi, Y.Q., A Comprehensive Review on the Applications of Coal Fly Ash, Earth-Science Reviews, 141(2), 2015, pp. 105-121.[CrossRef]

Salain, I.M.A.K., Study on Reactivity of Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Fly Ashes in the Presence of Water, Civil Engineering Dimension, 12(1), 2010, pp. 29-35.

Lee, S.J., Cho, H.C., and Kwon, J.H., Beneficiation of Coal Pond Ash by Physical Separation Techniques, Journal of Environmental Management, 104(8), 2012, pp. 77-84.[CrossRef]

Blanco, F., Garcia, M.P., Ayala, J., Mayoral, G., and Garcia, M.A., The Effect of Mechanically and Chemically Activated Fly Ashes on Mortar Properties, Fuel, 2018–2026(14-15), 2006, pp. 2018–2026.

Cammarota, A., Chirone, R., Solimene, R., and Urciuolo, M., Beneficiation of Pulverized Coal Combustion Fly ash in Fluidised Bed Reactors, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 32(7), 2008, pp. 1324–1333.[CrossRef]

Soong, Y., Schoffstall, M.R., and Link, T.A., Triboelectrostatic Beneficiation of Fly Ash, Fuel, 80(6), 2001, pp. 879-884.[CrossRef]

Kumar, R.S.K. and Mehrotra, S.P., Towards Sustainable Solutions for Fly Ash through Mechanical Activation, Resources, Conservation, and Recycling, 52(2), 2007, pp. 157-179.[CrossRef]

Kumar, S. and Kumar, R., Mechanical Activation of Fly Ash: Effect on Reaction, Structure and Properties of Resulting Geopolymer, Ceramics International, 37(2), 2011, pp. 533–541.[CrossRef]

Senneca, O., Salatino, P., Chirone, R., Cortese, L., and Solimene, R., Mechanochemical Activation of High-carbon Fly Ash for Enhanced Carbon Reburning, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 33(2), 2011, pp. 2743–2753.[CrossRef]

Temuujin, J., Williams, R.P., and van Riessen, A., Effect of Mechanical Activation of Fly Ash on the Properties of Geopolymer Cured at Ambient Temperature, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 209(12-13), 2009, pp. 5276–5280.[CrossRef]

van Riessen, A. and Tan, N.C., Beneficiation of Collie Fly Ash for Synthesis of Geopolymer: Part 1 – Beneficiation, Fuel, 106(4), 2013, pp. 569–575.[CrossRef]

Ahmaruzzaman, M., A Review on the Utilization of Fly Ash, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 36(3), 2010, pp. 327–363.[CrossRef]

ASTM C618-12a, Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in Concrete. ASTM International: West Conshohocken, PA, 2012.

Antoni, Wiyono, D., Vianthi, A., Putra, P., Kartadinata, G., and Hardjito, D., Effect of Particle Size on Properties of Sidoarjo Mud-based Geopolymer, Materials Science Forum, 803(2015), 2015, pp. 44-48.




How to Cite

, A., Satrya, V., & Hardjito, D. (2015). Simple Mechanical Beneficiation Method of Coarse Fly Ash with High LOI for Making HVFA Mortar. Civil Engineering Dimension, 17(1), 38-43.