The Correlation between Penetration Pressure Required to Install Pile Foundation and to Insert Bi-cones in Cone Penetration Test

Gogot Setyo Budi, Alvin Gilbert Tandiputra, Haven Kusuma Markho


One of the common methods used to install pile foundation is hydraulic jacked-in machine. In this method, a pile is pushed down into the ground up to the predetermined depth. The method has similar principle to that of Cone Penetration Test (CPT). This paper presents the correlation between the mobilize pressure required to install pile foundations and that required to push the bi-cones that attached at the tip of CPT rod. The results show that the penetration pressure required to install the pile into very soft clay layer is independent of pile diameter. The penetration pressure required to install the pile into soft to stiff clay layers depends on the pile diameter. The larger the diameter of piles, the smaller the penetration pressures required. The penetration pressure required to install the pile into stiff expansive clay layer beyond the depth of active zone can be predicted as high as the pressure calculated form CPT.


CPT; jacked-in pile; mobilize pressure

Full Text:



  1. Bogaert, H. History of Cone Penetration Testing (CPT), translation of the Handboek Geotechnisch Bodemonderzoek Ondergrond, The Vereniging Ondernemers Technisch Bodemonderzoek (VOTB), 2016

  2. White, D. J. and Deeks, A. D. Recent Research Into The Behaviour Of Jacked Foundation Piles, Cambridge University Engineering Department, UK, 2007

  3. Lehane, B. M., Pennington, D. and Clark, S. Jacked End bearing Piles In The Soft Alluvial Sediments of Perth, Australian Geomechanics, 2003

  4. Mahler, A. Use of Cone Penetration Test in Pile Design, Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering, Vol., 47, No 2, 2003, pp. 189-197

  5. DIN, Deutsches Institut fur Normung (DIN 4014), Bohrpfähle - Herstellung, Bemessung und Tragverhalten, German Association for Earthworks and Foundation Engineering, 1990

  6. Bustamante, M .and Gianeselli, L. Pile Bearing Capacity Prediction by Means of Static Penetrometer CPT, Proceedings of the 2nd European Symposium on Penetration Testing, ESOPT II, Amsterdam, 2, 1982, pp. 493-500

  7. Eurocode 7: Geotechnical Design – Part 3: Design by Field Testing; European Committee for Standardization, 1999

  8. De Cock, F and Legrand, C. editors. Design of Axially Loaded Piles, European Practice, 1997

  9. Hu, Y., Tang, L., Li, Z., and Sang, H.. Time-related Increase Evaluation in Bearing Capacities of End Bearing Jacked Piles by a New Method of CPT, Computer Modelling and New Technologies (12D), 18, 2014, 103-109

  10. SNI 2827:2008. Cara Uji Penetrasi Lapangan dengan Alat Sondir, Badan Standarisasi Nasional, Jakarta, 2008 (in Indonesian)

  11. Bhushan, B., Introduction to Tribology, John Wiley & Son, New York, 2013

  12. Testana Engineering, Soil Investigation Report, January, 2015


CED is published by The Institute of Research & Community Outreach - Petra Christian University, Surabaya, Indonesia

©All right reserved 2016.Civil Engineering Dimension, ISSN: 1410-9530, e-ISSN: 1979-570X

View My Stats